Lesson Plan: “-ed” ending (30-minutes)
INSTRUCTION (5-10 minutes)
In order to form the past tense of regular verbs, “-ed” is added to the end of the verb. This “-ed” ending has 3 different pronunciations in the English language: [t], [d], and [Id].
1) The “-ed” ending sounds like [t], as in “marked”, if the last sound in the present tense verb is voiceless. In the example, “marked”, the last sound in the present tense form of the verb, “mark”, is [k], which is voiceless, so the “-ed” ending here sounds like [t]. The voiceless sounds are [k], [p], [f], [s], [sh] and [tch].
Ex: licked, stopped, laughed, hissed, wished, watched
2) The “-ed” ending sounds like [d], as in “lived”, if the last sound in the present tense verb is voiced. In the example, “lived”, the last sound in the present tense form of the verb, “live”, is [v], which is voiced, so the “-ed” ending here sounds like [d]. The voiced sounds are [b], [g], [l], [m], [n], [r], [v], [th], and all vowels.
Ex: ebbed, hugged, stalled, hummed, stained, barred, starved, loathed, weighed, freed, showed
3) The “-ed” ending sounds like [Id], as in “waited”, if the last sound in the present tense verb is [t] or [d]. In the example, “waited”, the last sound in the present tense form of the verb, “wait”, is [t], so the “-ed” ending here sounds like [Id].
Ex: voted, landed, muted, ended
Students typically had problems with Rule #1 – when the “-ed” ending was supposed to sound like [t]. Instead of pronouncing the “-ed” sound as [t], many students pronounced it as [Id]. For example, they pronounced “wished” as [wishId] instead of [wisht] and “barked” as [barkId] instead of [barkt].
I corrected them by separating the “-ed” ending from the verb. I would say the present tense form of the verb first, then I would say the “ed” ending sound separately, having the students repeat. For example, for “wished”, I would first say “wish”, then [t]. I would then say the sounds faster together until the student was able to say [wisht].
IN-CLASS ESL EXERCISES (20-25 min)
After the instructional part of the lesson, I then give my students time in class to practice what they just learned. I like to give them exercises to do in pairs, and also as a large group. I’ve found that variety helps keep them interested.
For homework, I would assign Speechpeek lesson that reinforces the lesson above and allows me to review each individual students’ progress. Students love Speechpeek, because they can practice without classroom embarrassment, and I can provide personalized feedback to each of my students.
Sample SpeechPeek Lesson for “-ed” ending:
- Eun Ah wished that she didn’t have such a big headache.
- Our airplane landed safely.
- Choah carefully planned a surprise party for her best friend.
- I didn’t know that Hwa Soo hated Indian food.
- Jay cooked a delicious dinner for his family last night.
- Yun-Mi spilled some milk when she poured it into her cup.
- The ice in my drink melted quickly because of the hot weather.
- The cat hissed loudly when the dog barked suddenly.
- The child lied to his mom because he didn’t want to get in trouble.
- Last night, we ate steak and mashed potatoes, then we ordered dessert.